Personality Disorders: Types, Symptoms & Treatment

Types of Personality Disorders

Every individual has unique personality traits influenced by genetics and environment. The problem arises when someone shows unhealthy and rigid thinking, behavior, and functioning pattern. It often develops personality disorders that negatively affect social activities, relationships, and personal and professional life. The major challenge in treating a personality disorder is its nature. 

In most cases, persons who have personality disorders do not feel the need for diagnosis and treatment. They think their behavior is natural; the problem lies in the others. Personality disorders generally onset in teens or early adulthood. However, you can lead a healthy life by paying attention to any symptoms that can trigger any personality disorder in you or your loved ones. Let us explore different types of personality disorders with treatment options. 

1) Bipolar Personality Disorder

In bipolar personality disorder, a person experiences alternating episodes of mania and depression lasting from days to months. Symptoms of mania include:

●  Euphoric state in which a person feels excessively happy
●  Impulsive decisions (involve in substance abuse, casual sex, and spending)
●  Racing thoughts
●  Risk-taking 
●  Less sleep than usual and feeling not tired

Symptoms of episodes of depression are:

●  Suicidal thoughts 
●  The low energy level and no interest in once favorite activities 
●  Worry, hopelessness, and anxiety
●  Lack of concentration and decision making 
●  Irritable and restless behavior 

Bipolar disorder patients must opt for lifetime treatment plans to manage their mental health. Several bipolar treatment options include medications and therapies to help patients handle their condition. 

Bipolar Personality Disorder 

2) Borderline Personality Disorder

In borderline personality disorder, people cannot handle their emotions and often experience mood swings, impulsive behavior, and periods of anger, anxiety, boredom, and depression. It may continue for a few hours or several days, causing difficulty performing routine work and managing relationships. Symptoms of borderline personality disorder are:

●  Risky behavior such as reckless driving and shopping sprees
●  Feeling of emptiness, dissociation or detachment, or rapid changes in how the person
●  Self-harming habits like suicidal behaviors, self-mutilation, and threats
●  Poor anger management
●  Struggle to maintain a healthy bond with others and sudden shift in behavior 

A borderline personality disorder patient can resume normal life after getting treatment, such as psychotherapy and medications. 

3) Histrionic Personality Disorder

With histrionic personality disorder, a person seeks constant attention and reassurance from others to feel significant. The behavior of others can heavily influence the thinking pattern and behavior of a person having a histrionic personality disorder. It may show symptoms:

●  Inappropriate behavior such as flirtatious and provocative 
●  Self-centered
●  Excessively dramatic or emotional 
●  Lack of sincerity as their likes and dislikes shift depending on the treatment of others
●  Risky behavior often associated with excitement and novelty 

People having this disorder may appear normal while attending social gatherings and other crowded environments. But they often experience high stress and anxiety levels resulting in depression. Therapies such as cognitive behavioral therapy, group therapy, and psychodynamic therapy can help patients manage everyday life. 

4) Antisocial Personality Disorder

In antisocial personality disorder, a person shows no regard for right and wrong and often shows delinquent and irresponsible behavior. Symptoms of antisocial personality disorder are as follows:

●  Disrespectful toward others
●  Arrogant, opinionated with a sense of superiority
●  Manipulative to gain personal interests
●  Hostile with aggression or violence that may result in criminal behavior
●  Persistent dishonesty and lying to exploit others

People with this personality disorder are often involved in poor and abusive relationships caused of disregarding others' feelings and safety. Antisocial personality disorder requires constant medical attention and therapy for a prolonged period to manage the symptoms. 

5) Paranoid Personality Disorder

In paranoid personality disorder, a person faces a constant struggle to trust others and thinks of people as manipulative and liars despite having no evidence. Symptoms of this disorder are: 

●  Fear, suspicion, and mistrust of others
●  Anxiety (someone may take advantage of them)
●  Hypervigilance
●  Assume hidden motives and meanings
●  Anger and distress over self-assumed abuse

A person with paranoid personality disorder cannot maintain healthy relationships and fails to create new bonds due to a lack of trust. Treatment for this disorder is usually based on cognitive behavioral and dialectical behavioral therapy. Family members or coworkers refer patients with paranoid personality disorder to mental health facilities. 

6) Schizotypal Personality Disorder

A schizotypal personality disorder is characterized by a lack of trust and understanding to make stable and healthy relationships. 

People having this disorder struggle to understand how relationships develop and work and how their behavior contributes to it. They may have limited or no friends outside of their families. Schizotypal personality disorder has the following symptoms:

●  Suspiciousness and paranoid thinking 
●  Odd behavior or appearance
●  Superstitious and believe in bizarre fantasies
●  Bodily illusions
●  Odd speech having over-elaboration and metaphorical thinking 

People having schizotypal personality disorder often develop schizophrenia in later stages of life. Psychotherapy and medication are the best treatment options available to cure this disorder. 

7) Avoidant Personality Disorder

An avoidant personality disorder makes it difficult to make friendships and close interpersonal relationships. Characterized by the fear of rejection and feeling left out, the person avoids social situations. An avoidant personality disorder may include the following symptoms: 

●  Feeling of inadequacy
●  Lack of trust 
●  Low self-esteem
●  Self-isolation 

You may come across people in your circle who appear extremely shy and struggle to initiate conversations and develop close bonds with others. Their lack of confidence and low self-esteem does not allow them to spark new bonds and develop healthy relationships. This disorder is closely associated with an eating disorder, depression, substance abuse, and suicide. Talk therapy is the best solution to cure this disorder.

8) Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD)

A person with Obsessive-Compulsive personality disorder finds it hard to accept anything other than perfect. People with this personality disorder strive for perfection in everything they do, and hard work dominates their work lives, causing a disturbance in their personal lives. An OCPD patient may experience symptoms of:

●  Inflexibility
●  Facing difficulty in assigning tasks to others
●  Procrastinate a lot and struggle to meet deadlines due to fear of imperfection 
●  A constant need to have everything under control 
●  Feeling uncomfortable finding things messy and hoarding 

You may think your supervisor is highly efficient and shows uncooperativeness and stubbornness in case of poor work. But there is a chance that your supervisor may experience OCPD. Treatment of OCPD is based on therapy and is often accompanied by medications. 


It is always the best way to check your and your loved ones' mental health. Make yourself accountable and pay attention to your environment. In most cases, childhood trauma and a stressful environment are the leading causes of developing personality disorders. When you become aware of the signs and symptoms, you can help your loved ones in a better way by seeking treatment from health professionals.

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